Friday, August 10, 2012

Holcombe Family (1) - Colonial Generations

Note: Thomas Holcombe of Windsor, Connecticut and his descendants are well documented in both written text and on the Internet. This report presents a narrative of the early generations in my personal family line and is not meant to be a full and complete history of Thomas Holcombe or the Holcombe family.

Part 1 - Thomas Holcombe in the New World

It is unclear exactly when Thomas Holcombe arrived in New England. It could have been as early as 1630 on the Ship Mary & John or as late as 1633 on the Ship Thunder. As passenger lists for many of the Puritan voyages did not exist, the actual date that he first stepped foot on New England soil will probably never be known. Regardless, his arrive about 20 years after the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth puts him in the company of the first few hundred or few thousand white men to live in North America.

Drawing of the Mary and John. While it is unclear if Thomas Holcombe came
to the New World on this particular ship, it represents the type of vessel that
was plying the Atlantic Ocean between England and America in the 1630's.

Also unclear and in dispute, is the ancestry of Thomas Holcombe and even his birth date. He was born sometime between 1601 and 1610. The earliest genealogists, working in the first half of the 20th century and long before the information age, placed him as the son of Gilbert Holcombe and Ann Courtney. They resided at Hole House in Branscombe, along the cost, in the "west country" of Devon. Hole House, which still stands, was at one time a minor "manor house" and the Holcombe clan had some connections to royalty and some say, to the Crusades and as far back as Charlemagne. There is evidence, however, that Thomas was not the son of Gilbert as an 1887 publication (J.L. Vivian's Visitations of Devon) notes that Gilbert and Ann had no children and that, according to Gilbert's will, his possessions were left to his brother-in-law. So for now, despite what you might read in Holcombe genealogy books or find on the web, the ancestry of Thomas Holcombe remains a mystery. It does seem likely that Thomas was from the west country area and probably somewhere in Devon as that was the launching point for the Puritan invasion that would send a couple dozen ships to the future Boston Harbor in the 1630s.

Dorchester, Massachusetts

Thomas's ancestry and the circumstances that lead him to America remain unknown but on May 4, 1634, his existence and status were confirmed. On that date, he and about 58 other men took the "Freeman's Oath" and he was recorded as a resident of Dorchester. The oath would mean he could own land and vote, something reserved for only the most privileged white men of the day. By December of 1634, Thomas would be granted and eight acre "Great Lot" and other acreage in the town's meadowlands.

This scene is a good representation of very early colonial life in America  about
the time that Thomas Holcombe lived on his eight acres at Dorchester, Massachusetts.

Thomas was married to a women named Elizabeth. She is often referred to as Elizabeth Ferguson but it seems unlikely that her last name was actually Ferguson and their marriage date is unknown. They had their first child, daughter Elizabeth in 1634 which has lead genealogist to estimate her birth date around 1617 and to speculation that they were married about 1633 or earlier. Depending on when Thomas actually arrived in America, it is possible that they were married in England or in New England but no New England records have been found.

Puritan New England was a society in which civil life and religion where entwined. As such, each town around the Boston Bay and the Charles River had a meeting house (church) which was the prime gathering place and focal point of village life. The members of the congregation (the town residents) could be a tight-knit group and often acted in concert with each other. By 1635, there seemed to some disputes arising between some at Dorchester and the leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. A large group of these residents, let by the Reverend John Wareham would sell their landholdings at Dorchester and head west into the wilderness to Connecticut.

The first group left in the summer of 1635 for a place on the Connecticut River where the Plymouth Colony had setup an Indian trading post. In August of that year, Thomas would sell his lands and begin preparations to go west. He would be part of the second group, which arrived in the spring of 1636. Just a few years after his adventure to the new world had begun, Thomas was once again, on the move, this time to a new and untamed wilderness.

Windsor, Connecticut

Connecticut is divided in half by the Connecticut River, then known as "The Great River." Connecticut, in Mohegan means "the long river" (originally quonehtacut, quinnehtukguet, or connittetuck). To the west lies the Hudson River and Housatonic River valleys inhabited by the Mohawk and Iroquois. To the east lies the Thames River valley inhabited by Pequot. Four main tribes made up the "River Indians" in the Connecticut River valley. They were the Podunk on the east shore and Poquonock, Saukiog and Tunxis on the west shore.

The initial party of settlers suffered greatly in the first winter at Windsor. Some headed back to Dorchester and some ventured down the river for refuge on a ship but most remained. The next summer (1636) with the arrival of the balance of the Dorchester group, the fate of the town seamed sealed. They had originally been discourage by Colonial leaders to make the trek but seemed resolved to make their own way in the new world. Soon after their arrival, the Pilgrim trading post was abandoned and Windsor was officially established as the first town in Connecticut. Still, times would be hard for the first few seasons. The river gave the settlers access to the coast and supplies, but it was far from the Plymouth and Massachusetts colonies and defined the edge of the civilized frontier.

Windsor Connecticut from 1635-1650, annotated. In the far upper left, is the Thomas Holcombe
homestead at Poquonock. A drawing from The History of Ancient Windsor, Connecticut.

Thomas was granted a plot of land north of the fortified Palisado along a road that paralleled the river. This included land across the road in a large meadow that stretched to the river bank. He would stay in this location for only about three years. In 1639, he sold the lands and the family moved to a place known as Poquonock. It was north of established Windsor along the Farmington River (then known as the Rivulet). The Griswold and Bartlett families had also come to Poquonock and although it was only a couple of miles from the main town, these families were isolated and on their own for the first few years.

The description of the Thomas Holcombe land holdings from the History of Ancient Windsor . . . Distribution of Home Lots of the first settlers of Ancient Windsor . . . HOLCOMB (Holcombe, Holcom, Holkom), Thomas, 1635, or soon after (D.), lot gr. 14-1/2 r. wide, abt. opp. the old Lemuel Welch ho. and garden, E. line 3-1/2 r. N. of S. line of Welch garden; sold to Josiah Hull and rem. 1639 to Poq., where he had lot next N. of Ed. Griswold, " from the brook before his house to the Rivulet." His son Joshua had the homestead.
The risk the settlers at Poquonock were taking was recognized in Hartford and they were given some leeway in their expected military training and duties at Windsor (as recorded in the proceedings from the General Court)

From Colonial Connecticut Public Records, 1636-1776 . . . This Courte taking into consideration the many dangers that the familyes of Thomas Holcombe, Edward Grisswold, John Bartlitt, Francis Grisswold and George Grisswold, all of Wyndsor, are in and exposed unto, by reason the their remoate living from neighbors and neareness to the Indians, in case they should all leave theire families together without any guard, doth free one souldger of the forementoned families from training upon every training day, each family aforesaid to share herein according to the number of souldgers that are in them, provided that man which tarryes at home stands about the aforesaid howses upon his sentinell posture . . .
A drawing of the Thomas Holcombe house made in the early 1800's.

Thomas in not mentioned that often in public records and so not that much "official information" about him exists. He was known to be a delegate to Hartford in 1639 when Connecticut adopted the "Fundamental Orders" which is often considered the first constitution in America. We also know from his will that he acquired a considerable amount of land which would equate to a certain level of wealth and respect in New England society. He lived during the Pequot War, the first major armed conflict with the Indians but we do not know if he served in any capacity in that conflict.  His death in 1657 (in his late 40's or 50's) would leave Elizabeth a widow with a number of young children still at home and she would soon remarry.
The landholdings of Thomas Holcombe as recorded in his will, from the Holcombe Website . . . eleven acres in home lot with housing and orchard (£50); four acres and a half adjoining to the home lot (£6); ten acres and a half of meadow (£10-10s.); in the fourth meadow twelve acres (£15); twenty-five acres of woodland over the brook against the house (£3); forty-eight acres of woodland (£7-10s.); ten acres of woodland (10s.); and his part in that called Tinker's Farm, eighty acres and a barn (£3). 
After his death, Elizabeth would marry James Eno (Enno), also of Windsor. She was James third wife out of a total of four. He is said to be descendant of Belgian (or French) Huguenots from Valenciennes, a protestant center, in what is now northern France. His family went to London to escape religious persecution from the Catholics and it is claimed that he was born in London. He was not a Puritan and as such was not always accepted by the closed Puritan society but even so, he still managed to become a prominent citizen of Windsor, served in various public capacities and was successful land owner. James and some children from his previous marriages moved into the Holcombe house at Poquonock. Later they would move to the “Scotland” section on the east bank of the Farmington nearer to Simsbury. Elizabeth would live another 20 years and died in 1679.

The Children of Thomas and Elizabeth

Thomas and Elizabeth would have at least 10 children. Some would head into the wilderness and some would stay in Windsor. The three boys who survived to adulthood would each have large families of their own (as was the custom of the day) and their descendants would spread across New England and follow America's expansion west.
  • Daughter Elizabeth Holcombe (b.1634, d.1712) was probably born in Dorchester, Massachusetts. She married Sergeant Josiah Ellsworth (b.1629, d.1689), the son of John Ellsworth and Lucia Bower in 1654 at Windsor.  They first settled at Windsor, south of the Farmington River near the “old mill” and later moved to what became known as Elmwood, which stayed in the family until the early 20th Century. The current house dates form the 1780s and is now a museum operated by the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR). Elizabeth and Josiah had nine children.

    Oliver Ellsworth
    • A notable descendant was Oliver Ellsworth (b.1745, d.1807), a lawyer and politician who was one of the drafters of the United States Constitution, the first U.S. Senator from Connecticut, the third Chief Justice of the United States, being nominated for the post by George Washington, and an envoy to Napoleon’s Court. Ellsworth was noted as an active player in the details of the drafting of the constitution (including the “Connecticut Compromise”) and the development of the Federal Judicial system.
  • Daughter Mary Holcombe (b.1535, d.1708) was born at either Dorchester or Windsor. She married George Griswold (b.1633, d.1704), the son of Edward Griswold and Margaret (?) in 1655 at Windsor. George came to America with his parents and brothers and settled in Windsor. Edward Griswold and sons were founders of Windsor and neighbors to the Holcombes at the “outpost settlement” of Poquonock.  George was a large landowner, engaged in trade with England and the West Indies and was known to deal honestly and fairly with the Indians. Griswold is a notable family name in Connecticut and New England. Mary and George had 10 children.
    • A notable descendant was Erwin Nathaniel Griswold (b.1904, d.1994), a distinguished lawyer with a long resume that included a stint as Dean of the Harvard Law School and culminated with an appointment as Solicitor General of the United States (1967 to 1973).
  • Daughter Abigail Holcombe (b.1638, d.1688) was born at Windsor. She married Samuel Bissell (b.1636, d.1697), the son of Captain John Bissell and Mary Drake in 1658 at Windsor. John Bissell, probably a Huguenot, was one of the founders of Windsor. Abigail and Samuel had 10 children.
    •  A notable descendant was Lorenzo Snow (b.1814, d.1901) who took up Mormanism in the 1830’s after Joseph Smith settled near his home in Ohio. He would follow Brigham Young to Utah and later become the fifth president of the Morman Church, a position he would serve until his death. He would have nine wives and over 40 children and be the subject of a United States Supreme Court case involving polygamy.
  • Son Joshua Holcombe (b.1640, d.1690) was born at Windsor. He married Ruth Sherwood (d.1699), the daughter of Thomas Sherwood and Mary (?) of Fairfield, Connecticut in 1663 at Windsor. Thomas Sherwood, his first wife, Alice (?) and four children came to Boston in 1634 on the ship Frances. Thomas Sherwood was noted to have fought in the Pequot War. After his marriage, Joshua Holcombe took his family and his father’s movable property and headed to Windsor Center, now Simsbury, and settled on four acres that were granted to him in 1667. He was a prominent citizen of Simsbury and often found in the public records of the town. He and Ruth had 11 children. This branch of the family would continue in Simsbury for a number of generations and there are still Holcombes living there today.
    • Notable descendents included Brigadier General Samuel Robert Holcombe (b.1777, d.1868) who was in the War of 1812. He was born in New York and settled in Ohio where he would serve the as a local Sheriff and State Legislator.
    • Also, Frederick D. Holcombe (b.1786, d.1872), an ordained priest and one of the founders of Trinity College in Hartford. Trinity is the second oldest college in Connecticut, behind Yale, and was founded in 1823. Frederick was curator at the college from 1832 to 1872. He also was a founder of the Episcopal Seminary in Cheshire, Connecticut.
    • Also Marcus Hensey Holcombe (b.1844, 1932), a teacher and lawyer, he served in many elected and appointed positions in Connecticut culminating in the Governorship in 1915.
    • Also, Willard Anselm Holcombe (b.1868, d.1941), a newspaper man, playwright and well known press agent on Broadway in the early 20th century. He was noted to be associated with a number of successful Broadway productions of the time.
    • Also, Four Star General Thomas Holcombe (b.1879, d.1965), World War I and II veteran with a long and distinguished career culminating in his appointment as the 17th Commandant of the United States Marine Corps. Early in his career, he served in the Philippines and China. During WWI, he commanded a battalion in France. Between the wars, he served as marine commander at the naval station at Guantanamo, at marine headquarters, again in China and at naval operations. At the beginning of 1942, he became the Commandant of the Marines and commanded the Marine Corps for the balance of the war. After the war and his retirement from active duty, he served as a U.S. Envoy to South Africa. He was married to the daughter of a Rear Admiral and his only son also served as an officer in the Marine Corps. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
    • Also, Lieutenant Commander Joseph F.D. Holcombe (b.1917, d.1994) who was a Pearl Harbor survivor and later the Director of Logistics for North American Rockwell Corporation’s “Man in Space” program.
  • Daughter Sarah Holcombe (b.1642, d.1654) was born at Windsor. She only lived to about the age of 12.
  • Son (Sergeant) Benajah Holcombe (b.1644, d.1736) was born at Windsor. He married Sarah Eno (b.1649), the daughter of James Eno and Anna (?) or possibly the daughter of Richard Bidwell who was Anna’s first husband. James Eno married Elizabeth Holcombe after the death of Thomas which meant Sarah was a stepsister to Benajah. Benajah did not follow his brothers to Simsbury and Salmon Brook but instead he stayed on at Windsor. Historians have often had a harder time tracking Benajah’s line partially because of his unusual name which was sometimes confused with Benjamin. Benajah and Sarah had nine children. There are still Holcombes in Windsor today.
  • Daughter Deborah Holcombe (b.1646, d.1649) was born at Windsor. She only lived to about the age of three.
  • Son Nathaniel Holcombe (I) (b.1648, d.1740) would venture into the wilderness to a place called Salmon Brook. He and his descendants are covered in detail in the next section of this report.
  • Daughter Deborah Holcombe (1649/50, d.1686) was born at Windsor. She married Daniel Birge (b.1644, d.1697), the son of Richard Birge and Elizabeth Gaylord in 1668 at Windsor. Richard Birge was from Lancashire, England, was said to have been on the voyage of the Mary and John and was one of the founders of Windsor. Deborah and Daniel had six children and after the death of Deborah, Daniel remarried and had five more children.
  • Son Jonathan Holcombe (b.1651/52, d.1656) was born at Windsor. He lived to about the age of three or four.
Thomas Holcombe was buried at the Old Poquonock Burial Ground which was located very close to his homestead. Later his head stone and possibly his remains were removed and relocated to a cemetery in Granby.

The Old Poquonock Burial Ground, the original resting place of Thomas
Holcombe. It is noted on the cemetery sign that no stones still exist for any
burials prior to 1722. There are some Holcombe family members buried
here and at least another 60 just up the road at Elm Grove Cemetery.

Nathaniel Holcombe, the youngest son of Thomas and Elizabeth was only about nine years old when his father died. He would grow up with James Eno as his stepfather in a house where two families lived together. When he came of age, he would continue in the ways of his father and venture into the wilderness to make his mark.

You can read about Nathaniel's story in Part 2 of the report here . . .

For additional information: One of the best on-line sources about Thomas Holcombe and the greater Holcombe family can be found at Holcombe Family Genealogy.


  1. I am trying to trace back my Holcomb relatives: I started with Charles Lewis Holcomb (Jan 20 1868-Jan 17, 1928; Lewis Edgar Holcomb (May 12, 1842-1928); Samuel Daniel Holcomb (1817-Aug 22, 1875). My problem is I haven't been able to trace back the parients of Samuel Daniel Holcomb and earlier generations. I see the name Holcomb sometimes spelled as Holcombe. Did the spelling of the name change when they came to America? Can you help with earlier links to my family?

    1. Shirley,

      Thanks for reading and commenting. I might be able to help you but I would need to know more about your ancestors, such as where they lived. I spent a long time trying to connect the dots of current and past generations so I know it is frustrating but also possible. As far as the spelling goes, it can be either way (with or without the ‘e’) and still be from the same Holcombe family that came to Massachusetts and Connecticut or another branch that came to Virginia. Contact me via e-mail by using one of the contact buttons on my site and we can talk more.

    2. Shirley,

      Hey, if you are out there, I may have found your connections. On the Holcomb Genealogy website, there is a listing for Samuel Daniel Holcomb but born 1814 and died 1874. He was noted to have been married in Gallia, Ohio and died in Portland (Leando), Iowa. Not sure if this info has always been on the Holcombe site or is new or how accurate it is. Another site - also lists some of the same collaborating info. According to these sites, Samuel was the son of John (Judge) Holcombe and Cloe Mudge. John can be traced back (on the Holcombe website) to Joshua, the oldest son of the Thomas Holcombe, who came to America around 1630.

  2. Thanks so much for sharing this blog! Found it by accident while searching for information on my family tree on line!! Thomas Holcombe was my 8th Great Grandfather. It appears we are related. ;) I will greatly enjoy reading all of the information you have collected when I get some time. Too late tonight. Have a great week!!!

    1. Rachel,

      Thanks for reading and commenting and good luck with your family research.

  3. Hi Bruce...
    my name is Carolyn Holcomb Kejr
    I am a decedent of Thomas and Elizabeth Holcomb.
    I know my tree starts with them and goes down through Joshua, Joshua II and Joshua III and on down the line.
    I believe Thomas is my 10 x gr grandfather.
    I am hoping to read thru your blog and see if you have anything new to add to my tree.

    Do you know positively that Thomas is the son of Gilbert? I'm having a hard verifying this.

    Thanks...I look forward to hearing from you.

    Carolyn Holcomb Kejr
    my dad is Don Gene Holcomb
    grandfather is Ernest Holcomb

    1. Carolyn,

      Thanks for reading and commenting. I am almost certain that Thomas is not the son of Gilbert. Have you been on the Holcombe Genealogy website (link above at the end of this post)? That site has the most information I have found about Thomas and his descendants. If I have anything that I think you might want, I will e-mail it to you. Good luck with your research.

    2. Royal Ancestors of some American Families, compiled by Michael L Call states that the line of Thomas Holcombe was refuted in The American Genealogist (TAG) 26:109-08, 57:65-67. I have not seen these articles.

      About 5 years ago I copied a note (see below) that states that Thomas was the son of Gilbert and Ann. I have not idea which one is correct. I hope that some one will be able to furnish proof, one way or the other. I have lost contact with Lorin Synder

      Earl in VA

      04-02-97 From: Lorin A. Snyder 01:43 PM

      Date: Wednesday, 02-Apr-97 01:43 PM
      From: Lorin A. Snyder \ Internet:(
      To:Messenger Family Genealogy List \ Internet:
      Subject: MESSENGER-related families

      On a side-note, dealing with MESSENGER-related families, there is news. I know a bunch of us on this list descend from the Connecticut HOLCOMBE family, via Catherine HOLCOMBE, wife of Joseph MESSENGER and Experience HOLCOMBE, wife of Nathaniel ALFORD. Catherine and Experience were first cousins once removed.

      The progenitor of said HOLCOMBE family was Thomas HOLCOMBE, who married Mrs. Elizabeth FERGUSON. For some time, it had been said that Thomas was *likely* the son of Gilbert and Anne (Courtenay) HOLCOMBE, both of incredible royal lineage. However, one problem with that claim was the plaque of HOLCOMBE ancestry above the tomb of Sir John de HOLCOMBE, Knight of the Third Crusade and ancestor of Gilbert HOLCOMBE. Thomas was not included on that plaque (although neither were some others who claimed descent).

      Well, I have been informed by a HOLCOMBE researcher, to my complete surprise, that the missing part of that plaque has been found. A brother of Gilbert emigrated from England, (eventually his ancestors ended up in Australia), and had taken part with them. In 1995, that plaque was discovered and did, in fact, have Thomas Holcombe as the son of Gilbert and Anne (COURTENAY) HOLCOMBE.

      I have a *monstrous* file on the ancestors of Gilbert and Anne, and am still in the process of putting it all together. As it goes through Charlemagne, among those in many other royal houses, some of the ancestry goes back to the first couple centuries A.D. King Alfred the Great's ancestry, from a book written in the 900's, goes back to B.C. time.

      I have tons of ancestors of my MESSENGERS and related colonial families (including some not on your page, Debbie). I could see what I can do about posting lineages.

      Lorin Snyder

    3. Paulo,

      Thanks for coming to my site and leaving your long message. Most of what you have said is out there and known. Yes, Thomas is probably not the son of Gilbert; I think this is settled info and it is still not known who his parents were or where in England he came from. Hopefully, someday we will find out.

    4. Dear Bruce it's over an year but that message wasn't really mine I copied it from the Internet. The message indicates that Thomas could have been Gilbert's son but it seems that we have contradictory information about if Gilbert and Anne had children.

    5. Paulo,

      Thanks for coming back - yes, I expected that you had gleaned that from other sources (we all do). My current stance is that Thomas was not the son of Gilbert and Anne. It seems almost certain that they had no children as Gilbert's will noted such and all of his holdings went to his brother-in-law (at Gilbert's death). Could Thomas be of this line but from another branch? Maybe, but so far no discoveries have been made. As stated in my previous comment, I do have hope that someone out there will eventually sort this out and discover where Thomas came from. It will be fun to find the truth (wherever it leads).

  4. I stumbled across this while doing some research on the Holcombe family history and I love how you put all the history in a great,readable format. I have been slogging through so many ancient books written by pompous amateur historians I am about to go blind. Do you have any other information about Nathaniel II's son David? I am descended through David to Reuben,etc. I would love to know more if you have any stories.

    1. Jennifer,

      Thanks for reading, I do not have much on David as I try and focus on my direct line but you should look at the Holcombe Family Genealogy Website, if you have not already - that is usually a good starting point and there is info on David ... but you are right, the process can be a slog - I have been there.

  5. My 3rd great grandfather was Green Ham Holcombe 1795-1867 . I have been trying to join DAR but I can't prove that Green Ham is son of Jonathan Holcombe 1750-1816. only thing stopping my joining. Maybe you could help with this.. I've been looking and looking but have hit a brick wall.. Please help if you can.. thanks in advance.. Sylvia Lewis

    1. Sylvia,

      Thanks for reading – that is an interesting name “Green Ham” . . . I don’t think I can be much help to you, most of my information is fairly close to my line. I did google around a bit; it looks like your Holcombe line might be from what is often referred to as the “southern Holcombe’s? Most likely descended from William or Richard who settled in Virginia before 1680 (but you may already know this). Sorry I cannot be more help. I wish you luck in finding your link to the past.

  6. Great sources, I relied on them when tracking Wm Hayden, direct line to my dad. Was disappointed a bit when found the Quinby side, direct line to his mother, had not been clever enough find the Holcombes as soon as they arrived +/- 6 or 8 years later. Thank goodness for Higginson books tho. Have you seen the absolutely excellent job Mr. Gardner has done on the super website on Haydon-Heydon-Hayden website that he is directly linked to Wm Hayden. A family spat that yielded a name change is LOADED with extras with just about every Hayden variation in/around England, pictures and all that is fascinating reading and public domaine. I made sure about the public domain and have his email saying so but so much of it is super for my family and he has really done a good job for the Keyes/Keys as well. No need to publish this but I wanted you to know how much I have appreciated The Holcombe website in particular and enjoyed your stories on the blog. Best wishes............

    1. Betty,

      Thanks for stopping by and reading. I am glad my information could be of help. The Holcombe website was the place that really got me going and I am very grateful to the folks that put in all of the hard work there. I checked out the Gardner site, very well done. I wish you the best of luck with your continuing quest.

  7. Hi Bruce, What a wonderful site you have created, I am looking for Joseph Merton Holcombe Born 1882 in Westfield, Massachusetts, and he is buried in Bucyrus,Ohio in 1969. Thank You, Katherine Miller

    1. Katherine,

      Thanks for reading and commenting. I did see Joseph Merton Holcomb (born 1882) and his father on the Holcombe Family Website. From there you can follow the line back to Thomas. I know the early generations are accurate, not sure about the later ones. Have you looked at that website? I have found it to be a good starting point for all things Holcombe. If you want to talk more, click on one of my contact buttons and we can exchange e-mails. Best of luck with your research.